Neuroanthropology and Spiritual Imagination

Neuroanthropology and Spiritual Imagination

An Exploratory Study of Minangkabau Society


The Minangkabau culture, renowned for its rich and intricate tapestry, encompasses a multifaceted and profound set of values and wisdom. Their culture represents a comprehensive way of life, shaped by a multitude of complex, abstract, and extensive factors. In the case of Minangkabau, this unique culture finds its expression through a treasury of proverbs and metaphoric expressions, known as “pepatah” and “petitih,” intricately intertwined with their customs and traditions, such as saiyo sakato (consensus), sahino samalu (empathy), anggo tango (adherence to agreed rules and codes of conduct), and sajinjiang sapikua (sharing one’s joys and sorrows) (Sabri et al., 2019). These proverbs and expressions serve as invaluable guidance and knowledge, offering a significant insight into the Minangkabau way of life. The “pepatah” represents proverbial sayings that carry wisdom and guidance imparted by the elders (Wahyono & Hutahayan, 2020). They are not merely words but encapsulate profound teachings, often used to convey advice, assert authority, or provide moral and ethical lessons.

In contrast, “petitih” encompasses various proverbs, each laden with its distinct message. Both “pepatah” and “petitih” are repositories of vital knowledge, essential for navigating life within Minangkabau society. The uniqueness of Minangkabau culture lies in its subtle ability to encode a myriad of life concepts within these proverbs and expressions. The study of their implicit meanings within the context of Minangkabau culture unveils a plethora of values, beliefs, and traditions deeply rooted in their society. These sayings also represent the culture’s devotion to its traditions, evident during customary ceremonies, wedding rituals, and other significant moments where local wisdom and cultural heritage are emphasized. Additionally, “pepatah” and “petitih” often find expression in the form of poetry or songs, conveying moral lessons of justice, unity, and togetherness.

However, the traditional customs and language of Minangkabau are currently confronted with a range of contemporary challenges that significantly impact the daily lives of its younger generation. Among these challenges, one notable phenomenon is the escalating prevalence of other languages in the communication and expression of young Minangkabau individuals. This linguistic shift raises profound inquiries regarding the preservation of their native language and its inherent cultural significance. Despite the enduring cultural importance of the Minangkabau language, the increasing popularity of other languages gives rise to concerns regarding the potential erosion of the former (Yolanda & Saun, 2017). Moreover, the influence of slang language in contemporary communication cannot be understated. The adoption of slang expressions often influenced by global pop culture and the digital age, introduces a dynamic element to local language use (Benu et al., 2023). In the Minangkabau context, the influx of slang presents a challenge to traditional linguistic forms potentially altering communication dynamics within the community. In addition, another dimension of concern pertains to the role of family-based education in preserving the Minangkabau culture and language. Historically, the family unit has served as a pivotal means of cultural transmission. However, in the contemporary educational landscape, this responsibility is frequently transferred to formal educational institutions (O’Neill & Spennemann, 2008). The limited emphasis on family-based education in imparting cultural knowledge and language proficiency could potentially impact the continuity of Minangkabau traditions.

In this study, the concept of “spiritual imagination” by Jeremy Henzell becomes an intriguing point of connection between the proverbs of “baok batanang” from neuroanthropology outlooks. The expression of “baok batanang” is often employed to counsel and guide someone to attain a state of composure, equilibrium, and emotional control, particularly in moments of anger, confusion, disappointment, sadness, and similar emotional states. The phrase encapsulates an intricate blend of psychological, social, and spiritual constructs as “spiritual imagination” outlooks (Jeremy Henzell-Thomas, 2022), particularly, illuminating the significance of emotional regulation and communal harmony in Minangkabau society. Spiritual imagination as articulated by Jeremy Henzell-Thomas encompasses the capacity to perceive and engage with the divine reality within and beyond the confines of the material world. This faculty goes beyond abstract thinking and involves direct, tangible, and symbolically profound experiences. Serving as a bridge between the physical and spiritual realms, spiritual imagination enables individuals to discern the presence of the divine in all aspects of existence. This capacity entails a profound recognition of God’s simultaneous transcendent incomparability and immanent intimacy.  Through the lens of the spiritual imagination, individuals are empowered to witness the manifestations of the divine, comprehend the signs that attest to the Creator’s existence, and discern profound meanings within the cosmos. With this faculty, individuals can engage in prayer, rituals, and acts of worship with a genuine and heartfelt connection to the divine, transcending mere mechanical observance. Spiritual imagination enables individuals to navigate a world that is both exquisitely crafted and a path leading to the divine source. This capacity encourages a harmonious equilibrium between recognizing God’s immanence and maintaining an awareness of God’s transcendent majesty (Jeremy Henzell-Thomas, 2022).

In the Minangkabau culture, maintaining emotional equilibrium and establishing a connection with the divine spirituality are highly valued, and “baok batanang” serves as a reminder of this collective ethos. This expression signifies the collective responsibility to ensure that everyone remains in a state of inner peace and harmony. In contrast to the traditional image of the Minangkabau or West Sumatra as a province as a rich and culturally profound community, the 2018 Basic Health Research presented by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia indicates a prevalence of depression among the Minangkabau people at 8.2% (Jayani D. H., 2019). This aligns with the statement made by the Chairman of the Regional Representative Council of West Sumatra who asserted that the high levels of stress in this region are induced by the increasing pressures of life and have led to social shifts within the community (Suara Rantau, 2022).

The matrilocal lifestyle observed in Minangkabau has a profound impact on an individual’s life. In a matrilineal culture, intense interactions extend not only within the core family but also encompass the extended family (Röttger-Rössler et al., 2013). Upon marriage, couples typically choose to reside with the wife’s parents, adhering to cultural norms prevalent in Minangkabau society. This arrangement gives rise to a distinct family dynamic with the extended family, particularly the wife’s family, which assumes a significant role in maintaining marital harmony. However, it is important to note that this living arrangement can also introduce potential stressors and conflicts (Elvika & Pudjiati, 2019). Furthermore, research suggests that external factors, such as societal pressure and prescribed social obligations like arranged marriages can further contribute to the stress experienced by young individuals in Minangkabau (Nadia et al., 2022). These stressors may be compounded by the cultural inclination towards collectivism, where communal expectations and social norms exert a considerable influence on individual decision-making and life choices (Amatul et al., 2022).

Besides, there has been a notable increase in the prevalence of mental disorders in this area with a reported 50608 individuals suffering from mental disorders in 2013 making this region reach the 9th place in Indonesia (Ditjen P2P, 2020). Recent data from 2018 reveals that West Sumatra has climbed to the 7th position concerning the significant number of people with mental disorders (Rahmi & Rahmi, 2020). In this context, there exists a prevailing societal perception that individuals afflicted with mental disorders are stigmatized and regarded as incurable. In a study (Musmiler, 2020), it was observed that elderly individuals from the Minangkabau community exhibited indications of depression. These findings were attributed to feelings of neglect or marginalization by their families, apprehension regarding potential adverse events, a sense of helplessness and insignificance, and a lack of fulfilment and enthusiasm in life.

In addition, the efficacy of rehabilitative interventions, specifically the extent to which patients adhere to prescribed medication regimens is relatively limited (Menpan RB, 2019). Notably, the province is also one of the top ten in Indonesia in terms of reported suicide cases, registering 67 cases from January to October 18, 2023. During the period spanning October to November 2023, two cases of suicide and one case of attempted suicide have been recorded in Padang, the capital city of West Sumatra (Novitri Selvia, 2023). This can be attributed to the insufficient provision of mental health, which fails to adequately meet the need for high-quality, equitable, and affordable healthcare services (Rikhaflina, 2023). This phenomenon underscores a significant disparity between the rich religious and cultural traditions of the Minangkabau and the psychological pressures and challenges to mental health that have emerged within the community.

On the other hand, “baok batanang” holds profound significance, particularly in the aspects of self-control, emotional regulation, physical well-being, and spiritual connection to the divine. While Henzell-Thomas delves into the essence of spiritual imagination, emphasizing the ability to perceive the divine in all things (Henzell-Thomas, 2022), we argued that there is a parallel in “baok batanang” which encourages individuals to control their impulses and emotions, thus fostering a deeper connection with their inner selves and with the spiritual realm. Neuroanthropology provides an appropriate framework for fostering interdisciplinary collaboration (Dias, 2010; Lizardo et al., 2020). According to Lende et al. (2021), this interdisciplinary approach combines principles from neuroscience and anthropology, integrating theories and methodologies from cognitive science. It aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the intricate relationship between culture, cognition, and the brain in real-world environments and offers empirical research that complements studies conducted in clinical and laboratory settings.

Neuroanthropology, along with related sub-disciplines such as human biology, ecoimmunology, neuroeconomics, and biological psychiatry, has emerged as a significant interdisciplinary field in the study of human behavior. While traditional interdisciplinary research on human behavior has been predominantly led by psychology and biology, these newer sub-disciplines incorporate a wider spectrum of behavioral sciences, including anthropology and sociology, as exemplified in this study. Neuroanthropology extends beyond the confines of behavior analysis, encompassing a wide range of human phenomena, biological processes, cognitive and emotional dimensions, and the impact of social and cultural factors (Maestripieri, 2015). Hence, this study builds upon prior research (Brown & Seligman, 2009; Campbell & Garcia, 2009; Vogl et al., 2015) which involves Minangkabau customs and culture, and neuroscience, by addressing the intergenerational perceptions of cultural artifacts (petatah-petitih) (Moeis et al. 2022; Mahdaleni and Hadiyanto 2022; Natsir et al. 2020; Shalihin 2023), a study that has not yet been explored. While Mason’s  study (2008) examines the traditional dance of the Minangkabau people, Winkelman’s interview (2019) explores the interplay between consciousness, culture, and evolution. Besides, Kitayama & Park (2010) delve into cultural neuroscience and the interaction between culture, mind, and the brain. Zona & Adrian (2019) research investigates creativity in the tourism sector, touching upon cognitive flexibility and persistence. Brown & Seligman (2009) emphasize the collaboration between anthropology and cultural neuroscience in understanding emotion, status, ritual, and more. Campbell & Garcia (2009) advocate for a neuroanthropological perspective to bridge the gap between social science and neuroscience. Vogl et al. (2015) explore music therapy from a neuroanthropological standpoint. Moeis et al. (2022) examine Minangkabau values from a cross-cultural perspective. Natsir et al.’s (2020) study focuses on character development in adolescents within the Minangkabau culture.

Therefore, while the existing studies provide valuable insights into various aspects of culture, anthropology, and neuroscience, the proposed research takes a novel approach by examining the spiritual and symbolic dimensions of a cultural expression within a neuroanthropological context. It aims to unravel the metaphysical and transcendental aspects of “baok batanang,” which have not been addressed in the reviewed studies. Additionally, it contributes to our understanding of how culture, spirituality, and neurological processes intersect, filling a significant gap in the current research landscape. Consequently, this study aims to address the following key questions: firstly, how do individuals from various generations within the Minangkabau community understand and interpret the concept of “baok batanang“? Secondly, how can the analysis of “baok batanang” be approached within the framework of spiritual imagination, specifically from a neuroanthropological perspective? Consequently, this study seeks to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the perspectives held by individuals from different generations, concerning the expression “baok batanang“, and the inquiry involves a systematic exploration of how “baok batanang” may be intertwined with or influenced by the realm of spiritual imagination in neuroanthropology outlooks within the fields of human (Vogl et al., 2015). It seeks to unravel the potential spiritual dimensions, symbolism, and transcendental aspects inherent in this expression. By delving into this relationship, the study endeavors to illuminate the deeper metaphysical and symbolic connotations that “baok batanang” may carry.

Methods, Setting Location, and Informants

The research was conducted using a qualitative research approach to explore the intricate semantics of the Minangkabau expression “baok batanang” and comprehensively understand the complex and nuanced meanings and describe nature phenomena (Berk et al., 2015). The primary data collection method employed in this study was open-ended interviews which encouraged informants to freely express their perspectives. The study included three informants, each representing a different generational group: Generation X, Generation Y (Millennials), and Generation Z. The informant sampling method employed in this study was purposive sampling which involves the intentional selection of informants based on specific characteristics, such as age and generation that are deemed relevant to the research objectives and analysis of study (Elo et al., 2014). The informants were selected based on their involvement in cultural, academic, and social spheres. Sasana who represents Generation X, was chosen due to his esteemed position as a professor in the field of art studies in West Sumatra. His extensive experience in education and deep understanding of the Minangkabau culture makes him an invaluable informant. Pertiwi representing Generation Y, is an associate researcher specializing in environmental justice, governance, and gender issues. Her active engagement in contemporary social issues relevant to her generation makes her a compelling choice for this study. Asmar representing Generation Z, was selected as a graduate in biology. His recent academic pursuits and unique perspective as a member of the youngest generation provide valuable insights into how his cohort perceives and interacts with current issues and social aspects. These three informants were chosen for their shared social and academic experiences in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the differences and similarities among the three generations within the context of Minangkabau culture.

By incorporating informants from these diverse generational segments, this study aimed to capture various interpretations and the evolution of the meaning of “baok batanang” across different age groups. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis which is a systematic and rigorous technique for evaluating qualitative data obtained through interviews. Content analysis involved identifying recurring themes, patterns, and variations in informants’ responses (Elo et al., 2014). Themes emerged as recurring topics or ideas within the informants’ responses. Patterns were recognized as similarities and consistencies in how informants described and related to “baok batanang.” Variations encompassed the differences, nuances, or diverse perspectives that emerged during the interviews. Understanding variations in how informants perceived and explained “baok batanang” provided insights into the multifaceted meanings associated with the expression within Minangkabau society.

The incorporation of a diverse range of informants from different generations provided a rich and dynamic perspective on how “baok batanang” was perceived over time. This methodological choice provided a profound insight into the cultural and spiritual significance of the Minangkabau expression and how its interpretation evolved within different generational contexts. To protect the confidentiality and privacy of the informants, pseudonyms were assigned to each informant which differed from their actual names (Akuffo, 2023). Consequently, the Generation X informant was identified by the pseudonym “Sasana,” the Generation Y informant was represented by the pseudonym “Pertiwi,” and the Generation Z informant was denoted as “Asmar.” This practice ensured a discreet and secure environment for discussing their views, experiences, and interpretations (Heaton, 2022).


Interpretation of “Baok Batanang” Across Multigenerational of Minangkabau

In the pursuit of comprehending the intricate semantics and evolving interpretations of “baok batanang” within the Minangkabau culture, this discussion embarks on a multi-generational journey, seeking insights from three distinct informants representing Generation X, Generation Y, and Generation Z. Through their respective perspectives, the discourse unravels the diverse lenses through which these generational groups perceive and interpret the nuanced significance of “baok batanang.” By delving into these varying viewpoints, this discussion endeavors to shed light on the evolving cultural and emotional tapestry woven around this expression, highlighting the influence of generational differences in understanding Minangkabau wisdom.

Sasana (Gen X) stated:

The term “baok batanang” refers to the maintenance of clear thinking, free from emotional influences, while also applying logical reasoning grounded in concrete data and facts.

According to Sasana, this expression is commonly used in the context of discussions in forums, seminars, and similar situations to underscore the significance of maintaining composure and employing rational thinking. The concept of “baok batanang” holds relevance, especially in situations that demand wise consideration and the application of rational thinking to effectively address various events. Sasana’s viewpoint which reflects the Generation X perspective underscores the importance of upholding objectivity and clear reasoning in intellectual and contextual environments that require deep deliberation.

Pertiwi (Gen Y) further explained:

“Baok batanang” is overcoming obstacles by carefully deliberating one’s options to arrive at a wise decision. This expression is invoked in situations where one might feel panicked or when confronted with critical choices, emphasizing the idea that life should be lived with careful consideration.

In Pertiwi’s interpretation, the expression “baok batanang” encapsulates the concept of navigating through challenges by engaging in thoughtful and prudent decision-making. This phrase finds its application in circumstances marked by heightened stress or the need to make pivotal decisions. The overarching message it imparts is the significance of leading one’s life with deliberate forethought and wisdom, thereby implying that hasty actions may not yield the best results. Pertiwi’s insight from the perspective of Generation Y highlights the value placed on mindful and contemplative choices when confronted with life’s intricate challenges.

Asmar (Gen Z) stated:

“Baok batanang” is an expression emphasizing the need to remain calm and composed. It is often employed when someone is on the verge of anger or during a conflict.”

As per Asmar, the phrase “baok batanang” embodies a concept that emphasizes the importance of maintaining serenity. This expression is often used when someone is on the verge of anger or during a conflict. Asmar’s perspective which reflects Generation Z highlights the value placed on emotional restraint and its role in interpersonal interactions and managing moments of tension or dispute.

Generation X perceives “baok batanang” as a concept that emphasizes the importance of clear thinking, devoid of emotional influence, and the application of logical reasoning based on concrete data and facts. Sasana’s perspective reflects the viewpoint of Generation X, highlighting the significance of objectivity and clear thinking within intellectual environments that demand deep contemplation. Conversely, Generation Y sees “baok batanang” as overcoming obstacles by carefully considering choices to arrive at wise decisions. The Generation Y perspective underscores the importance of making thoughtful and prudent choices when faced with complex life challenges. Meanwhile, Generation Z regards “baok batanang” as an expression that emphasizes the significance of remaining composed and calm. This perspective of Generation Z underscores the importance of emotional control and its role in interpersonal interactions and managing moments of tension or conflict.

The disparities in the understanding of the “baok batanang” concept among these generations can be largely elucidated by age-related factors and the psychological development associated with each generation. Generation X, who is in adulthood and has attained mental maturity, tends to view “baok batanang” as an emphasis on clear thinking, devoid of emotional influence, and the application of logical reasoning. In contrast, Generation Y, presently in early adulthood and encountering more life challenges, associates this concept with making wise decisions in navigating obstacles and critical situations. Generation Z, still in late adolescence and undergoing a maturation phase, places greater emphasis on emotional control, particularly in conflict or highly emotional situations. These differences reflect the evolving values and priorities over time, and the distinct life experiences among these generations.

Uncovering the Spiritual Dimensions of “Baok Batanang” in Multigenerational Outlooks

Baok batanang” is a proverbial expression that holds profound significance and encompasses fundamental values within Minangkabau society. This traditional expression serves as a conduit for dispensing advice, imparting guidance, and conveying moral lessons to individuals or collectives within the Minangkabau community. “Baok batanang” encapsulates the cultivation of lucid thinking, the preservation of emotional equanimity, and the exercise of self-restraint, particularly in situations that elicit emotional responses such as anger, perplexity, disillusionment, or sorrow. This expression underscores the importance of upholding emotional equilibrium and fostering communal concordance within the Minangkabau community. Moreover, “baok batanang” encompasses spiritual values and serves as a reminder for individuals to forge a connection with their spiritual dimension, referred to in this context as spiritual imagination. Spiritual imagination empowers individuals to delve into deeper realms of comprehension and awareness, playing a pivotal role in mysticism, spiritual practices, and the interpretation of sacred texts (Jeremy Henzell-Thomas, 2022).

Within the cultural context of Minangkabau, the “baok batanang” concept intertwines with various elements of spiritual imagination lending itself to analysis through a neuroanthropological lens. Foremost, it emphasizes the utmost importance of cognitive prowess and lucid thinking when confronted with intricate circumstances. Sasana, representing Generation X, explicates that “baok batanang” entails the cultivation of astute thinking alongside the application of logical reasoning based on empirical data and factual evidence. This perspective reflects a profound understanding that amid societal dynamics and decision-making necessitating thoughtful deliberation, the cognitive capacity for critical and rational thinking plays a pivotal role. Such aptitude empowers individuals to take judicious and impartial actions in addressing diverse events and challenges encountered in everyday life. Nonetheless, the concept of spiritual imagination encompasses a more comprehensive embrace of creativity, the reinvigoration of worldviews, and spiritual dimensions. “Baok batanang” epitomizes a specific facet of these constituents, specifically the realm of mental capabilities, which serves as a fundamental bedrock for making sagacious decisions under intricate and demanding circumstances.

Moreover, the concept of thought renewal emerges as another crucial aspect, where the “baok batanang” concept manifests varying interpretations across different generations in terms of navigating intricate and pivotal situations. Specifically, the viewpoint articulated by Pertiwi, representative of Generation Y, closely aligns with the tenets inherent in the realm of spiritual imagination, underscoring the significance of astute decision-making through meticulous contemplation and profound reflection. Within the context of spiritual imagination, individuals are encouraged to reassess and reconceptualize their perceptions of reality, myths, and narratives that guide them through multifaceted sensory processes (Henzell-Thomas, 2018). In the “baok batanang” concept, the renewal of thought assumes a central role, accentuating the value of adopting alternative perspectives and acknowledging the capacity of younger generations to contribute to more informed understandings when confronted by intricate challenges within their lives.​​​​​​​

Finally, it is essential to understand spiritual values that align with the overarching construct of spiritual imagination. The use of “baok batanang” in situations necessitating sagacious consideration and actions driven by meticulous thought encompasses the incorporation of spiritual facets within the decision-making process. The cognizance of spiritual values when confronted with complex circumstances is evident in the notion of contemplative thinking and profound deliberation. While the “baok batanang” concept does not explicitly address spiritual dimensions, the Minangkabau teachings as a comprehensive entity bestow a profound understanding of judicious decision-making by interweaving spiritual elements into one’s approach toward challenges. By introducing terminology such as “theophany,” it becomes discernible that within every prudent action and profound reflection encapsulated in the “baok batanang” concept, there exists a recognition of the “theophany” concept wherein the divine continually unveils itself through an unceasing process of creativity guided by the values of Minangkabau religion and culture. This concept acknowledges that the sacred is not detached or isolated from the mundane aspects of daily life, but rather an intrinsic and inseparable component thereof.

Hence, the Minangkabau approach to judicious decision-making is not only profound but also guided by the spiritual precepts of Islam (Downes & Kobbe, 2017; Susanto et al., 2023). Although conventional thinking may be confined to addressing worldly predicaments, often devoid of sentiments, fervor, and emotions, contemplation, particularly when employing the “baok batanang” expression, ideally within the sphere of spiritual imagination, transcends the confines of the material realm. It empowers individuals to surpass the limitations of the material world and delve into a deeper spiritual reality, consequently fostering a more comprehensive apprehension of spiritual verities and stimulating apt actions (Badri, 2000).


In conclusion, this study sheds light on the diverse perspectives of different generations regarding the “baok batanang” expression within Minangkabau culture, thereby accentuating its intricate and multifaceted nature. Generation X emphasizes clear and logical thinking, devoid of emotional influence, while Generation Y focuses on making wise decisions to navigate obstacles and critical situations. Generation Z places importance on emotional control, particularly in conflict or emotional circumstances. These differences reflect the evolving values and priorities across these generational cohorts and offer valuable insights into the generational shifts within Minangkabau culture. In addition, “baok batanang” intertwines with elements of spiritual imagination, emphasizing cognitive prowess, the renewal of thoughts, and the integration of spiritual dimensions into decision-making processes. This concept aligns with the teachings of Minangkabau and the spiritual principles of Islam, introducing the notion of “theophany” to signify the continuous unveiling of the divine through creative endeavors guided by Minangkabau values and religious norms. This transcends the material realm, enabling individuals to delve into a deeper spiritual reality, fostering a comprehensive understanding of spiritual truths, and inspiring appropriate actions.

Nonetheless, it is crucial to acknowledge the limitations inherent in this study whereby only focused on the interpretation of “baok batanang” and the potential for divergent understandings stemming from the informants’ varied backgrounds, sample size, and experiences. Due to the limited number of informants involved in this study, it is important to acknowledge that the findings may not comprehensively represent the diverse perspectives within each generational group. The informants’ backgrounds and experiences can introduce inherent biases into the interpretation of “baok batanang.” Their personal experiences, beliefs, and cultural influences may not encompass the entirety of the wide range of meanings associated with this expression within Minangkabau culture.

The knowledge derived from this study holds practical implications for educational and cultural preservation endeavors. Particularly in formal education settings, the integration of traditional proverbs, such as “baok batanang,” can play a pivotal role in safeguarding Minangkabau knowledge and cultural heritage. By incorporating these proverbs into the curriculum, students not only gain linguistic proficiency in their cultural heritage but also acquire a deep understanding of the profound wisdom encapsulated within these expressions. This ensures that younger generations continue to value and comprehend their cultural heritage amidst an era marked by multilingualism and globalization. As Minangkabau society grapples with the impacts of globalization and the potential erosion of cultural values, the capacity to connect with one’s inner self and the divine realm, as suggested by the concept of “baok batanang,” becomes increasingly imperative. This comprehension empowers the Minangkabau people to navigate the complexities of contemporary life while preserving their cultural identity and spiritual connection. By embracing these timeless values and wisdom in their daily lives, the Minangkabau community can uphold their rich cultural heritage and confront present-day challenges with resilience and a profound sense of self.

To advance our understanding, future investigations should delve into other Minangkabau proverbs, considering the contextualized exigencies and challenges of this contemporary era and needs. This study implies that the older generations in the Minangkabau community should assume the role of mentors, impart guidance to the younger generation, and emphasize the practice of emotional regulation in their day-to-day lives, employing expressions such as “baok batanang” as a medium for this purpose.

Rahmat Ryadhush Shalihin in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (Credit: Ambarada Mahogananda).

Rahmat Ryadhush Shalihin in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (Credit: Ambarada Mahogananda).

Rahmat Ryadhush Shalihin as the corresponding author played a pivotal role in the composition and comprehensive refinement of the full manuscript.










Listia Khairunnisa (Credit: Sokip Mustopa).

Listia Khairunnisa (Credit: Sokip Mustopa).

Listia Khairunnisa as the first co-author, significantly contributed to the enhancement of the manuscript’s structural integrity and attended to technical intricacies in the writing process.









Xinca Aiden Hamdani (Credit: Reflection Photography Studio)

Xinca Aiden Hamdani (Credit: Reflection Photography Studio)

Xinca Aiden Hamdani as the second co-author, offered insights that enriched the manuscript’s development, particularly within the nuanced context of Minangkabau culture.










Each of the three authors possesses a profound and extensive comprehension of the intricacies of Minangkabau culture, particularly in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia.


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